A Social and Economic History. In American Historical Review:
Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World AztecMaya and Inca which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all that is known about them.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4, years. The Arcaico and Igneri co-existed on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries.
They called it Boriken, meaning "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord". They subsisted by hunting and fishing, done generally by men, as well as by the women's gathering and processing of indigenous cassava root and fruit.
This lasted until Columbus arrived in He later served as the first governor of the island. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish people began to colonize the island. The population suffered extremely high fatalities from epidemics of European infectious diseases.
Other nearby islands, like Cuba, Saint-Domingue, and Guadeloupe, attracted more of the slave trade than Puerto Rico, probably because of greater agricultural interests in those islands, on which colonists had developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest in the Atlantic slave trade.
With no significant industries or large-scale agricultural production as yet, enslaved and free communities lodged around the few littoral settlements, particularly around San Juan, also forming lasting Afro-creole communities.
Meanwhile, in the island's interior, there developed a mixed and independent peasantry that relied on a subsistence economy. By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish Empire was diminishing and, in the face of increasing raids from European competitors, the colonial administration throughout the Americas fell into a "bunker mentality".
Imperial strategists and urban planners redesigned port settlements into military posts with the objective of protecting Spanish territorial claims and ensuring the safe passing of the king's silver-laden Atlantic Fleet to the Iberian Peninsula.
San Juan served as an important port-of-call for ships driven across the Atlantic by its powerful trade winds. The colony's seat of government was on the forested Islet of San Juan and for a time became one of the most heavily fortified settlements in the Spanish Caribbean earning the name of the "Walled City".
Learning from Francis Drake 's previous failures herehe circumvented the cannons of the castle of San Felipe del Morro and quickly brought his 17 ships into the San Juan Bay.
He then occupied the port and attacked the city while the population hurried for shelter behind the Morro's moat and high battlements. Historians consider this event the worst attack on San Juan. Though the Dutch set the village on fire, they failed to conquer the Morro, and its batteries pounded their troops and ships until Hendricksz deemed the cause lost.
Hendricksz's expedition eventually helped propel a fortification frenzy.
Urban planning responded to the needs of keeping the colony in Spanish hands. Late colonial period Hacienda La Fortuna.
A sugar mill complex in Puerto Rico painted by Francisco Oller in Brooklyn Museum During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Spain concentrated its colonial efforts on the more prosperous mainland North, Central, and South American colonies. With the advent of the lively Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the s, the island of Puerto Rico began a gradual shift to more imperial attention.
More roads began connecting previously isolated inland settlements to coastal cities, and coastal settlements like Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began acquiring importance of their own, separate from San Juan. By the end of the 18th century, merchant ships from an array of nationalities threatened the tight regulations of the Mercantilist system, which turned each colony solely toward the European metropole and limited contact with other nations.
Slavers, which had made but few stops on the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations.
On April 17,Sir Ralph Abercromby 's fleet invaded the island with a force of 6,—13, men,  which included German soldiers and Royal Marines and 60 to 64 ships. Fierce fighting continued for the next days with Spanish troops. Both sides suffered heavy losses.
By the time independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies gained success, new waves of loyal creole immigrants began to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tilt the island's political balance toward the Crown.ABSTRACT.
From biblical times to the modern period, leprosy has been a disease associated with stigma. This mark of disgrace, physically present in the sufferers' sores and disfigured limbs, and embodied in the identity of a 'leper', has cast leprosy into the shadows of society.
In the Book Notes series, authors create and discuss a music playlist that relates in some way to their recently published book.. Previous contributors include Jesmyn Ward, Lauren Groff, Bret Easton Ellis, Celeste Ng, T.C. Boyle, Dana Spiotta, Amy Bloom, Aimee Bender, Heidi Julavits, Hari Kunzru, and many others..
Kareem Tayyar's The Prince of Orange County is an evocative coming-of-age novel. - Puerto Rican Identity Found in Music During Colonial Rule Music played an important role in the history of Puerto Rico and helped shape the Puerto Rican identity.
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Puerto Rican Music as Representation of Their History and Culture Puerto Rican music is an evolving art form that expresses Puerto Rican culture and identity.
The development of Puerto Rican music is also a reflection of their history, both being complicated by several layers. The Puerto rican identity is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples.
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