Economic systems that fail to set proper value on the environment capitalism, free markets. They are all part of the efforts to modify consumer behavior to accept less, deal with higher energy prices, restrict water use and place severe limitations on use of private property — all under the environmental excuse. That makes it easy for any activist group to issue concerns or warnings by news release or questionable report against and industry or private activity, and have those warnings quickly turned into public policy — just in case. Many are now finding non-elected regional governments and governing councils enforcing policy and regulations.
Additional resources Understanding control methods Eradicating invasive species on site is an attainable goal, especially if new introductions are detected early. However, eradication may not be feasible when populations are large and pervasive.
When limited resources or the degree of infestation preclude eradication, a more realistic management goal is to control the unwanted species by reducing their density and abundance to a level which does not compromise the integrity of the ecosystem and allows native species to thrive.
Control programs can include manual, mechanical, chemical, biological and cultural components. Landowners and land managers should evaluate their site, the life cycle characteristics of the invasive species and the best available science to determine which control method or combination of methods will be most effective and economical.
Employing a combination of prevention and control measures is an effective way for landowners and land managers to manage invasive species. This approach is often referred to as integrated pest management IPM and can include pulling, cutting, targeted pesticide use, biological controls and native species reintroduction.
Where eradication of the invasive species is not realistic, control strategies must strike a balance between ecological impacts of allowing invasive species to spread and the economic realities of control measures.
Not all control methods are practical, effective, economically feasible, or environmentally sound for every situation. Manual control Manual control techniques include activities such as hand-pulling, digging, flooding, mulching, burning, removal of alternate hosts and manual destruction or removal of nests, egg masses or other life stages.
These techniques work best on small populations or in areas where chemicals or motorized equipment cannot be used. Manual control efforts must be persistent and several treatments may be needed to reduce or eliminate the target population. If infestations are too pervasive, manual control may become labor intensive and thus not economically feasible.
Usually works best with small or young plants, in sandy or loose soils, or when soils are damp. Smothering Use mulch, black plastic, carpet, or any other impenetrable barrier to cover target plants for at least one growing season.
The effectiveness of this technique can be increased by first cutting the target plants and then smothering them. If dealing with a species that produces clones, be sure to cover all stems of the species. Flooding This is only feasible where water levels can be manipulated to completely cover cut plants for a period of time.
The depth of water necessary and the amount of time cut plants should be covered will vary from species to species.
Prescribed fire If using fire as a control technique, know and follow local burning regulations check local ordinances. Grass or prairie fires can spread rapidly. Consult with natural areas management experts at nature centers, your local DNR office, or local land management consultants for training opportunities before attempting this method of control.
Burn permits are required in many areas and more information on permits can be attained through local fire departments and the Wisconsin DNR.
Those responsible for starting a wildfire are liable for all suppression costs. This could mean the cost of firefighters, fire trucks, air planes and even the cost of damages. Read the Wisconsin Forestry Management Guidelines for a more complete guide of what is needed for a controlled burn to take place planning, equipment, personal protection.
Controlled or "prescribed" burns are used to reduce invasive and woody plant density and competition, stimulate the growth of native plants, return nutrients to the soil, promote germination of dormant seeds and enhance wildlife habitat.
These burns are called "controlled" or "prescribed" because they are done only under specific weather-and fuel-related conditions that ensure an effective burn and the safety of the burn crew and the surrounding area.
Purposely set in plant communities that have evolved with fire, such as oak woodlands, prairies, savannas, and sedge meadows, controlled burns can kill or set back certain invasive species that do not tolerate fire.
Burns are usually conducted in midspring or fall. If early blooming wildflowers are present, it is often best to burn in very early spring or late fall to avoid damaging them.
In natural areas that are badly infested with invasive plants, controlled burns may initially need to be done for several years in a row to reduce the weed seed bank and stimulate native species.
Burning this frequently is not generally recommended in healthy native plant communities because important insect pupae and eggs may also be destroyed.
Burning one-third to one-half of a natural area each year on a rotating basis is usually the preferred management strategy and will lead to increased plant and insect diversity.
Conducting controlled burns should not be taken lightly. Burning is a dangerous activity that requires planning, coordination, equipment, and trained personnel. It also requires an understanding of how fuel conditions and weather conditions, such as humidity, temperature, wind direction, and wind speed, affect a burn.
When utilizing prescribed fire for forest stewardship practices, consider the use of the Fire Effects Information System website http: This website offers information regarding how various animal and plant species, including invasive plants, react to fire.
It also contains information regarding what intensity of fire is best for the management of these species.
The website features Invasive Plant Species Summaries which give information regarding the management of various invasive species. Spot treatment with fire:When consumers make purchases at market prices they reveal that the things they buy are at least as beneficial to them as the money they relinquish.
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