Articles Reel Psychology Intro:
The reel-to-reel format was used in the earliest tape recordersincluding the pioneering German-British Blattnerphone machines of the late s which used steel tape and the German Magnetophon machines of the s. Originally, this format had no name, since all forms of magnetic tape recorders used it.
The name arose only with the need to distinguish it from the several kinds Das reel tape cartridges or cassettes such as the endless loop cartridge developed for radio station commercials and spot announcements inthe full size cassettedeveloped by RCA in for home use, as well as the compact cassette developed by Philips inoriginally for dictation.
The earliest machines produced distortion during the recording process which German engineers significantly reduced during the Nazi Germany era by applying a " bias " signal to the tape. Inone machine was found to make consistently better recordings than other ostensibly identical models, and when it was taken apart a minor flaw was noticed.
It was introducing an AC signal to the tape[ dubious — discuss Das reel, and this was quickly adapted to new models using a high-frequency AC bias that has remained a part of audio tape recording to this day.
The quality was so greatly improved that recordings surpassed the quality of most radio transmitters, and such recordings were used by Adolf Hitler to make broadcasts that appeared to be live while he was safely away in another city.
American audio engineer Jack Mullin was a member of the U. His unit was assigned to investigate German radio and electronics activities, and in the course of his duties, a British Army counterpart mentioned the Magnetophons being used by the allied radio station in Bad Nauheim near Frankfurt.
He acquired two Magnetophon recorders and 50 reels of I. Farben recording tape and shipped them home. Over the next two years, he worked to develop the machines for commercial use, hoping to interest the Hollywood film studios in using magnetic tape for movie soundtrack recording.
Unitra ZK, a vintage Polish -made reel-to-reel tape recorder Mullin gave a demonstration of his recorders at MGM Studios in Hollywood inwhich led to a meeting with Bing Crosbywho immediately saw the potential of Mullin's recorders to pre-record his radio shows.
Using Mullin's tape recorders, and with Mullin as his chief engineer, Crosby became the first American performer to master commercial recordings on tape and the first to regularly pre-record his radio programs on the medium.
Ampex and Mullin subsequently developed commercial stereo and multitrack audio recordersbased on the system invented by Ross Snyder of Ampex Corp. Les Paul had been given one of the first Ampex Model tape decks by Crosby in and went on to use Ampex eight track "Sel Sync" machines for multitracking.
Ampex went on to develop the first practical videotape recorders in the early s to pre-record Crosby's TV shows. Inexpensive reel-to-reel tape recorders were widely used for voice recording in the home and in schools before the Philips compact cassetteintroduced ingradually took over.
Cassettes eventually displaced reel-to-reel recorders for consumer use. However, the narrow tracks and slow recording speeds used in cassettes compromised fidelity.
Columbia House carried pre-recorded reel-to-reel tapes from to Following the example set by Bing Crosby, high-speed reel-to-reel tape recorders rapidly became the main recording format used by audiophiles and professional recording studios until the late s when digital audio recording techniques began to allow the use of other types of media such as Digital Audio Tape DAT cassettes and hard disks.
Even today, some artists of all genres prefer analog tape claiming it is "musical", "natural", despite its fidelity inaccuracies. Due to harmonic distortion, bass can thicken up, creating a fuller-sounding mix. In addition, high end can be slightly compressedwhich some claim is more natural to the human ear, though this claim is more of a myth as it is not possible for natural sound to sound more natural as a compressed recording of it.
It is uncommon, but sometimes artists record to digital and re-record the tracks to analog reels for this effect of "harmonically distorted" sound which to some, sounds pleasing. In addition to all of these attributes of tape, tape saturation is a unique form of distortion that many rockblues and funk artists find very pleasing.
However, with modern technology, these forms of distortion can be recreated digitally. For the first time, audio could be manipulated as a physical entity. Tape editing is performed simply by cutting the tape at the required point, and rejoining it to another section of tape using adhesive tapeor sometimes glue.
This is called a splice. The splicing tape has to be very thin to avoid impeding the tape's motion, and the adhesive is carefully formulated to avoid leaving a sticky residue on the tape or deck. Usually, the cut is made at an angle across the tape so that any "click" or other noise introduced by the cut is spread across a few milliseconds of the recording.
The use of reels to supply and collect the tape also made it very easy for editors to manually move the tape back and forth across the heads to find the exact point they wished to edit. Tape to be spliced was clamped in a special splicing block attached to the deck near the heads to hold the tape accurately while the edit was made.
A skilled editor could make these edits very rapidly and accurately. A side effect of cutting the tape at an angle is that on stereo tapes the edit occurs on one channel a split-second before the other.
Long, angled splices can also be used to create a perceptible dissolve from one sound to the next; periodic segments can induce rhythmic or pulsing effects. The performance of tape recording is greatly affected by the width of the tracks used to record a signal, and the speed of the tape. The wider and faster the better, but of course this uses more tape.
These factors lead directly to improved frequency responsesignal-to-noise ratioand high-frequency distortion figures.Kennen Sie schon das beste Online Casino Deutschlands, um Online-Spielautomaten zu spielen und viele andere online Casino Spiele?
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