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Henry Holt and Company, THE title, Commedia dell'arte "Comedy of Art" or "Comedy of the profession"means unwritten or improvised drama, and implies rather to the manner of performance than to the subject matter of the play.
This peculiar species had a long life in Italy, probably of about four hundred years from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century ; but it flourished especially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Of course in actual practice the play was not, in any sense, the result of the moment's inspiration. The subject was chosen, the characters conceived and named, their relations to one another determined, and the situations clearly outlined, all beforehand. The material was divided into acts and scenes, with a prologue.
The situations were made clear, together with Commedia dellarte turn of action and the outcome of each scene. When this general outline called also scenario or canvas was satisfactorily filled out there was left an opportunity for actors to heighten, vary, and embellish their parts as their genius might suggest.
The necessity for smoothness, constant surprise, clearness, and wit called forth histrionic abilities which had been unknown to the medieval stage. The dialogue must go like a merry game of ball or spirited sword-play, with ease and without a pause.
These comedians changed forever the standards of acting. The best of them stamped their parts with individuality, freshness and brilliance, and gave value to pieces which, often enough, were otherwise worthless.
The Commedia dell'arte introduced the professional actor into Europe. There were the same long-lost children stolen by the Turks, the same plotting maids, bragging captains, aged fathers and wily widows.
Each gentleman had his parasite, each woman her confidante. It might be clever pantomimic acting, acrobatic feats, juggling, or wrestling.
For example, three characters meet at a cook shop, where they hear of an accident which has befallen the wife of one of them.
While they express their dismay at the affliction, they fall to eating greedily from a huge dish of macaroni; and as they eat, tears stream down their faces. Or again, a servant, disgusted at an order his master has given him, delays carrying it out until he has turned a complete somersault.
One famous actor could execute this trick having a full glass of wine in his hand, without spilling a drop. Another was able, in his eighty-third year, to box the ear of a fellow servant with his foot.
Elaborate imitations of women taking off their stays, false hair, and crinolines were always acceptable, together with many pantomimic diversions of a less innocent character. These are examples of the lazzi of the Commedia dell'arte. The rascally servant, the old man, the lady's maid, and the like--stock characters which appeared in every play--always wore a conventional dress, with masks.
In general these masks may be classed under four or five groups: Pantalone and the Doctor, both old men; the Captain, a young man of adventure; the valet or jester, usually called Zanni; the hunchback Punchinello; and another old man, somewhat different from the first two.
Pantalone was usually a shop-keeper from Vienna, somewhat stupid, fond of food and of pretty women, talkative, gullible, full of temper, the butt of all the jokes--some of them very indecent--yet forgiving in the end. His business was to get deceived by his young wife, or his son, or his servant.
The second old man, the Doctor, filled the part of a lawyer, an astrologer, or perhaps a philosopher from Bologna. Sometimes he represented an absent-minded pedant, quoting latin at inappropriate times, and enormously conceited.
The bragging Captain, a boasting, swashbuckling officer, often Spanish, dressed-to-kill in cape, feathered hat, high boots, with sword in belt, was always a prime favorite.
He told extraordinary tales about how he beat a whole army of Turks and carried off the beard of the Sultain, but when there was a hint of real danger he was the first to run away.Genre théâtral né au XVIe s mais ainsi nommé au XVIIIe s reposant sur l'improvisation d'acteurs souvent masqués Ingéniosité naïveté ruses et travestissements sont les principaux ingrédients de la commedia dell'arte comédie de métier qui a remporté un vaste succès en Europe du XVIe au XVIIIe s Connue jusqu'au XVIIIe s sous le nom de .
Commedia dell'Arte, also known as "Italian comedy", was a humorous theatrical presentation performed by professional actors who traveled in troupes throughout Italy in the 16th century.
Performances took place on temporary stages, mostly on city streets, but occasionally even in court venues. The. Commedia dell'arte, a form of rehearsed improvised comedy, is a popular component of drama education programs at high schools and universities partly because it.
THE title, Commedia dell'arte ("Comedy of Art" or "Comedy of the profession"), means unwritten or improvised drama, and implies rather to the manner of performance than to the subject matter of the play.
This peculiar species had a long life in Italy, probably of about four hundred years (from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century); but it flourished especially in the sixteenth and. Commedia dell'arte (Italian pronunciation: [komˈmɛːdja delˈlarte], comedy of the profession) was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century.
|Harlequin - Wikipedia||The exact origins of Commedia are fuzzy and hard to pin down. There is not much documented previous to the 16th century.|
|Encyclopédie Larousse en ligne - commedia dell'arte italien commedia dell'arte comédie de l'art||A History of Commedia Dell'arte Through this timeline we will discover the development of what is and what has become Commedia Dell'arte.|
|Origins and development||Three Gentlemen and Pierrot, c. The Atellan Farces of the Roman Empire featured crude "types" wearing masks with grossly exaggerated features and an improvised plot.|
|Create a Commedia Dell’Arte Character||The legacy of Commedia includes the first incorporated i. The style of Commedia is characterized by its use of masks, improvisation, physical comedy, and recognizable character types.|
|The masks, or characters||Though merely speculative, these conjectures have revealed the existence of rustic regional dialect farces in Italy during the Middle Ages.|
Commedia dell'arte is also known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, and commedia dell'arte . Commedia Dell'Arte: An Actor's Handbook [John Rudlin] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. There has been an enormous revival of interest in Commedia dell'arte.
And it remians a central part of many drama school courses. In Commedia dell'arte in the Twentieth Century John Rublin first examines the orgins of .