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The environmental issues tackled and solved by the Case study world industrial abrasives were, basically, Secondo: The waste matter resulting from the extraction of copper using pyrometallurgical processes The high power consumption involved in the prodotto uction of resistance type heating elements.
As far as concerns the first point, we must consider that, as a result of the pyrometallurgical processing involved, 2. Rather, it is disposed of or undergoes further treatment as inert material for hydraulic construction work, e.
Every year about Most of it is simply disposed of, in spite of the fact that there are many possible applications for it, although they would require further processing that would lead to a negative final environmental balance.
This reduces the quantity of discarded material that up to now was sent to landfills.
As far as concerns the second problem, we must keep in mind that the discarded material has interesting semi-conductor and ferromagnetic properties, since it consists mainly of iron oxides and silicates, and that it has a low intrinsic energy.
If it were to be used to replace materials such as SiC, which instead features a high intrinsic energy, a substantial energy saving would be achieved in the treatments involving it. Replacing these elements with others featuring less intrinsic energy but similar properties determines lower energy consumption and therefore a lesser impact on the environment.
Goals and results The main aim of the project concerned the conversion of waste slag resulting from the copper metallurgy process into heating elements and semi-conductor glazes to be used in residential applications.
This means reconverting and re-using the material discarded when processing copper, such as iron oxides and silicates, in order to make — by way of example — under-floor heating panels for household use.
This would lead to a reduction in the prodotto uction of CO2 and in energy consumption. The project was not limited merely to re-using the slag prodotto uced during the copper metallurgy process, since it also had the aim of developing new high-performance prodotto ucts starting out from that type of waste: The main results expected of this project were, so, as follows: Innovative action and aspects In order to achieve the pre-established aims, and in view of the complexity of the project, the parties proposing it had defined a series of activities to be carried out in order to achieve the expected aims within the scheduled time-frame.
These activities were the following: Collection, characterisation and preparation of the discarded material, in order to find sources of the discarded material from copper metallurgy able to provide a constant flow of raw materials and such as to enable their properties to be characterised so as to investigate their suitability for use.
This stage has been important also for determining if and what preparatory activities would have been necessary in order to make the waste usable in the subsequent stages of processing. Definition of the forming and sintering techniques, in order to determine the optimum conditions for achieving efficient forming and sintering of the granules of the slag.
The aim was to determine the best treatment procedures so as to transfer them to the pilot plant. Construction of forming and sintering sub-systems for the pilot line, able to prodotto uce sintered parts.
For these applications, other raw materials, preferably re-cycled, have been added, such as sintering aids. This enabled one-piece components to be obtained at relatively low temperatures.
Finishing operations have also been implemented. Definition of the process conditions of the melting and casting activities and creation of samples of vitreous one-piece prodotto ucts. This is the stage in which the process conditions for the melting and casting activities have been defined, and use of the salvaged discarded material investigated with the possible addition of forming agents and vitreous modifiers to the compound.
Definition of the process conditions for obtaining frit and glazes, and application tests on ceramic tiles. The most appropriate rapid-cooling conditions have been investigated, analysing both dry cooling and wet cooling techniques, so as to evaluate the benefits of each.
Creation of the melting and forming sub-system for the prodotto uction of plates for microwave cooking and antistatic glazes with electromagnetic shielding properties. This activity lead to completion of the demonstration pilot line dedicated to melting and to the prodotto uction of the first samples.Composition of Demandite for the United States and the World in Discover 3M Food Safety 3M Food Safety helps safeguard your business, mitigate risk, and protect consumers with a broad range of testing solutions.
Case Study 2: Performance Fluting on 10% Cobalt EndMills; FIGURE 2 is a head to head test on a typical 10% cobalt 20mm carbide end mill. Based on the spindle load, it is evident that Paradigm® is much more efficient and free cutting than the incumbent wheel as it .
a Figures are for Birmingham and the Black Country in For source see n. 8 below. More detailed figures are available for the metal trade alone. Table 2 sets out the distribution in of plants and employment in Birmingham and the Black Country for the metal trades (including jewellery and guns).
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We propose a panel data estimation strategy for quantifying the effects of the container revolution on international trade. • We exploit time and cross sectional variation in countries’ first adoption of container facilities and product level variation in .